## The Scatter Object#

In GraphingLib, there are two ways to create a Scatter object. If you want to plot existing data, you can use the standard constructor by passing in the x and y data as lists or numpy arrays. If you want to plot a function, you can use the `from_function()`

method. This method takes in a function and a range of x values to evaluate the function at. In the latter case, you can also specify the number of points to evaluate the function at. Both of these alternatives are shown below.

# Create datax_data = np.linspace(0, 10, 100)y_data = 3 * x_data**2 - 2 * x_data + np.random.normal(0, 10, 100)# Create scatter plot from datascatter_1 = gl.Scatter(x_data, y_data, label="Data")# Create scatter plot from functionscatter_2 = gl.Scatter.from_function( lambda x: -3 * x**2 - 2 * x + 350, x_min=0, x_max=10, number_of_points=20, label="Function",)# Create figure and displayfig = gl.Figure()fig.add_elements(scatter_1, scatter_2)fig.show()

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You can also add error bars for x and/or y by calling the `add_errorbars()`

method like so:

# Create datax_data = np.linspace(0, 10, 10)y_data = 3 * x_data**2 - 2 * x_data# Add errorbars with float or array/list of floatsscatter = gl.Scatter(x_data, y_data)scatter.add_errorbars(x_error=0.3, y_error=0.1 * y_data)fig = gl.Figure()fig.add_elements(scatter)fig.show()

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Just like with the Curve object, you can add, subtract, multiply, and divide two Scatter objects. You can also add, subtract, multiply, and divide a Scatter object by a float or int.

Warning

If you add, subtract, multiply, or divide two Scatter objects, the two objects must have the same x values. If they do not, an exception will be raised.

scatter_sine = gl.Scatter.from_function( lambda x: np.sin(x), x_min=0, x_max=2 * np.pi, label="Sine")scatter_line = gl.Scatter.from_function( lambda x: x, x_min=0, x_max=2 * np.pi, label="Line")scatter_addition = scatter_sine + scatter_linescatter_addition.label = "Sine + Line"scatter_plus_constant = scatter_sine + 3scatter_plus_constant.label = "Sine + 3"fig = gl.Figure()fig.add_elements(scatter_sine, scatter_line, scatter_addition, scatter_plus_constant)fig.show()

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Interpolation between data points is possible by calling the `get_coordinates_at_x()`

and `get_coordinates_at_y()`

methods. The first returns a tuple of coordinates that represent the point on the curve at the specified x value. The second works the same way, but returns a list of tuples, one for each point on the curve that has the specified y value. The `create_point_at_x()`

and `create_points_at_y()`

methods work the same way, but return Point objects instead of tuples.

scatter = gl.Scatter.from_function( lambda x: np.sin(3 * x) * np.cos(x) ** 2, x_min=0, x_max=2 * np.pi, number_of_points=70, label="$\sin(3x)\cos^2(x)$",)point_at_4 = scatter.create_point_at_x(4, color="red")points_at_y_one_half = scatter.create_points_at_y(0.5, color="orange")fig = gl.Figure()# Use the * operator to unpack the list of pointsfig.add_elements(scatter, point_at_4, *points_at_y_one_half)fig.show()

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You can also add a third dimension to your scatter plot by specifying the color of each point. This can be done by passing in a list of colors to the face_color or edge_color arguments. If you want to use a colormap, you can pass in a list of intensity values to the face_color or edge_color arguments and specify the colormap with the color_map argument. If you want to see the colorbar, you can set the show_colorbar argument to True.

# Generate random x and y datax = np.linspace(0, 10, 100)y = np.random.rand(100) * 10# Generate a list of intensity values which will be mapped to colorsz = np.sin(x) + np.cos(y)# Create scatter plot with colorscatter = gl.Scatter(x, y, face_color=z, color_map="Reds", show_color_bar=True)fig = gl.Figure()fig.add_elements(scatter)fig.show()

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## Curve fitting#

There are a number of curve fit objects that can be used to fit data. The most versatile is the FitFromFunction object. This object takes in a function and a Scatter or Curve object and fits the data to the function. However, the most common functions have their own dedicated fit objects to accelerate the fitting process. The most powerful of these is the FitFromPolynomial object. All you need to do is pass in a Scatter object and the degree of the polynomial you want to fit to the data:

# Create noisy datax = np.linspace(0, 10, 100)y = x**2 - 3 * x + 3 + np.random.normal(0, 7, 100)scatter = gl.Scatter(x, y, "Data")fit = gl.FitFromPolynomial(scatter, 2, "Fit")# Print the coefficients of the fitcoefficients = fit.coeffsfor i, c in enumerate(coefficients): print(f"Coefficient of x^{i}: {c}")# Use the fit to predict value of y at x = 5print(f"Value of fit at x = 5 is y = {fit.function(5)}")predicted_point = fit.create_point_at_x(5, color="red")fig = gl.Figure()fig.add_elements(scatter, fit, predicted_point)fig.show()

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Coefficient of x^0: 4.9668661552059294Coefficient of x^1: -4.099977593163963Coefficient of x^2: 1.0770659002222067Value of fit at x = 5 is y = 11.39362569494128

Currently, the following fit objects are available:- FitFromPolynomial- FitFromExponential- FitFromLog- FitFromSquareRoot- FitFromSine- FitFromGaussian

The details of how to use each of these fit objects, as well as the specific variables that are fitted (and how to access them), are described in the API Reference. For some of these, it can be useful to specify initial guesses for the fitted variables with the guesses argument.

Here is an example of fitting a sine function to some data:

# Create noisy sine wave datax = np.linspace(0, 10, 100)y = 3 * np.sin(2 * x + 3) + 5 + np.random.normal(0, 0.5, 100)# Create scatter plot and fit with guesses (amplitude, frequency, phase, offset)# Frequency is the most important parameter to get close to the actual valuescatter = gl.Scatter(x, y, label="Noisy sine")fit = gl.FitFromSine(scatter, label="Fit", guesses=(1, 2.2, 1, 1))all_params = fit.parametersprint(f"Amplitude: {fit.amplitude:.3f}")print(f"Frequency: {fit.frequency_rad:.3f}")print(f"Phase: {fit.phase_rad:.3f}")print(f"Vertical shift: {fit.vertical_shift:.3f}")fig = gl.Figure(y_lim=(0.5, 10.7))fig.add_elements(scatter, fit)fig.show()

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Amplitude: 2.943Frequency: 2.004Phase: 2.943Vertical shift: 5.102

And here is an example of fitting a specific, user-defined function to some data. In this example, a laser of wavelength 532 nm is shone though a single slit of unknown width. The resulting diffraction pattern is recorded on a screen. You can use the Fraunhofer single-slit diffraction equation to fit the data and determine the width of the slit:

def single_slit(theta, a): wavelength = 500e-9 beta = np.pi * a * np.sin(theta) / wavelength return (np.sinc(beta / np.pi)) ** 2# Our fictional experimental data (with noise and slit width of 3.75 microns)theta = np.linspace(-0.3, 0.3, 500)a = 3.75e-6I_exp = single_slit(theta, a) + np.random.normal(0, 0.02, 500)# Create scatter and fit from single_slit functionscatter = gl.Curve(theta, I_exp, label="Experimental Data")fit = gl.FitFromFunction(single_slit, scatter, label="Fit", guesses=(1e-6))# Fitted parameters are stored in the Fit objectprint(f"Slit width: {fit.parameters[0] * 1e6:.3f} microns")fig = gl.Figure(x_label="Angle (rad)", y_label="Intensity (a.u.)")fig.add_elements(scatter, fit)fig.show()

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Slit width: 3.763 microns

As a bonus tip, you can use the `create_slice_x()`

and `create_slice_y()`

methods to create a Scatter object that represents a slice of the original data. This can be useful for fitting a function to just part of your data if you measurements are not reliable at all x values.